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Citation Guide: How to cite AUDIO/VISUAL MATERIALS

A guide for navigating various citation styles in order to create citations for resources cited in research papers.

How to cite VIDEOS


Format: Author. Year. Title.  City of publication: Publisher. Medium.

American Sociological Association. 2004. Max Weber Visits America, 1904. Washington, DC: American Sociological Association. DVD.

Papademas, Dianne, ed. 2002. Visual Sociology: Teaching with Film/Video, Photography, and Visual Media. 5th ed.  Washington, DC: American Sociological Association. VHS.

Online Video

Online Format: Author. Year. "Title." Publisher if noted. Date of upload if noted. Accessed date if needed. URL.

University of Luxembourg. 2019. "Inequality and Women in Politics." Produced by European Investment Bank, December 1. Video.



Format: Author. Year. "Title of Podcast." City of publication: Publisher. Name of company, podcast. Accessed date if needed. URL.

Hout, Michael. 2009. "Higher Education Today." Washington DC: American Sociological Association. Contexts, podcast.  http://contexts.or/podcast /2009/06/07/higher-eduction-today/.

PowerPoint Presentation

Format: Author. Year. "Title of Presentation." Presented at location, date, city.

Cheng, Yin Cheong. 2008. "Reform Syndrome and Educational Research in the Asia-Pacific Region." Presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association, March 28, New York City.



Format: Actors. "Section of movie if used." Disc # (if more than 1). Title of movie. Medium. Directed by name. City of publication: Publisher, year.

Leese, John, Terry Gilliam, Eric Idle, Terry Jones, and Michael Palin. " Commentaries." Disc 2. Monty Python and the Holy Grail, special ed. DVD. Directed by Terry Gilliam and Terry Jones. Culver City, CA: Columbia Tristar Home Entertainment, 2001.



Format: Composer. Title of work, performed by name, conducted by name. Recorded year, publisher, date of publication, medium.

Richard Strauss, Don Quixote, with Emanuel Feuremann (violoncello) and the Philadelphia Orchestra, conducted by Eugen Ormandy. Recorded February 24, 1949, Biddulph LAB 042, 1991, compact disc.

How to cite PHOTOS

Format: Author. year. "Title of work." Medium (format). Title of collection. Accessed date if needed. URL.

Library of Congress. 2007. "Addams, Jane. Photograph." Image (TIFF). Famous People: Selected Portraits from the Collections of the Library of Congress.