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Citation Guide: How to cite AUDIO/VISUAL MATERIALS

A guide for navigating various citation styles in order to create citations for resources cited in research papers.

How to cite MOVIES

Note: You can list movies in a Bibliography by either director or title.


Note number. Title of Piece, Director of film (Studio, Year), Medium (Production, Year), URL (if viewed online).

 Sample Note:

9. Crumb, directed by Terry Zwigoff (Superior Pictures, 1994), DVD (Sony Pictures, 2006).

15. High Art, directed by Lisa Cholodenko (October Films, 1998),


Director’s Last, First names, director. Title of Motion Picture. Studio, Year. Medium. Distributer, Year.

Name of movie. Directed by first name last name. Studio, Year. Length. URL (if viewed online).

Sample Citation:

Lumet, Sidney, director. 12 Angry Men. Orion-Nova Productions, 1957. DVD. MGM Home Entertainment, 2007.

Dope. Directed by Rick Famuyiwa. Open Road Films, 2015. 1 hr., 43 min. https://www.



Note number. Composer.  “Title of Piece”, Description of work, Producer of show, URL (if viewed online).

 Sample Note:

10. Ludwig van Beethoven, “Piano Sonata no. 29” (“Hammerklavier”), performed by Rudolf Serkin, recorded December 8-10, 1969, and December 14-15, 1970, Sony Classics, 2005, MP3.

21. Richard Strauss, Don Quixote, with Emanuel Feuermann (violoncello) and the Philadelphia Orchestra, conducted by Eugene Ormandy, recorded February 24, 1940, Biddulph LAB 042, 1991, CD.

22. Pink Floyd, “Atom Heart Mother.” recorded April 29, 1970, Fillmore West, San Francisco, Concert Vault streaming audio,


Composer. “Title of song.” Date of recording. Title of album. Original written or Performed date. Recording studio, date of recording. Medium of recording: CD, record, cassette, etc. URL (if viewed online).

Sample citation:

Brahms, Johannes. “Lullaby.” 1868. Recorded on 25 Tranquil Classics, SPJ Music, 2002. CD.