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Citation Guide: How to cite AUDIO/VISUAL MATERIALS

A guide to create citations for bibliographies and works cited in reference papers.


It is not necessary to specify how you watched a film (theater, DVD, streaming). However, the format or other descriptive information may be included-within the square brackets, following the word “Film” and a semi-colon)

Author note: Author could be Director, Producer, Host, Artist, Uploader, Writer, or Composer, depending on the film and focus.


How to cite Films/Videos

Producer, A. A. (Producer). (Year). Title of video [Description]. Production Company.


Spielberg, S. (Producer). (1993). Schindler's List [Film]. Universal Pictures.

Video Online

Name (Producer). (Year). Title of video [Description]. Available from complete URL.


Andrews, A. (Producer). (2007). Deaf ninja [Video]. YouTube. Available January 5, 2010, from

Turner Broadcasting (Producer). (2010). CNN hero: Dr. Andy Moore [Video]. CNN. Available from

How to cite WEBINAR (recorded)

Author. (Year). Name of webinar [description]. Publisher/sponsor. URL


Goldberg, J. F. (2018). Evaluating adverse drug effects [Webinar]. American Psychiatric Association.

How to cite a PODCAST

Host. (year). Title of work [description]. Name of website. URL


Vedantam, S. (Host). (2015-present). Hidden brain [Audio podcast]. NPR.

Glass, I. (Host). (2011, August 12). Amusement park (No. 443) [Audio podcast episode]. In This American Life. WBEZ Chicago.

How to cite PowerPoint slides/Lecture notes

Instructor. (year). Title of lesson [description]. Place of lecture. URL


Mack, R., & Spake, G. (2018). Citing open source images and formatting references for presentations [PowerPoint slides]. Canvas@FNU.

Canan, E., & Vasiliev, J. (2019, May 22) [Lecture notes on resource allocation]. Department of Management Control and Information Systems, University of Chile.


Writer, A. (Copyright year). Title of song [Recorded by B. B. Artist if different from writer]. On Title of album [description]. Label. (Date of recording if different from song copyright date).


Brahms, J. (2002). Lullaby [Recorded by SPJ Music, Inc.]. On 25 Tranquil Classics. SPJ Music. (Originally composed  1868).

How to cite PHOTOS

Online Photographs

Photographer's Last name, First initial. (Date of composition (if unknown use n.d.). Title of work. Museum or collection. Retrieved Date of access, from complete URL of website


Hoflehner, J. (2005). Liquid wall, Iceland [Photograph]. Stephen Bulger Gallery.

Adams, A. (1927). Monolith: The face of Half Dome. [Photograph]. Collection of George Eastman House, Rochester, NY.

How to cite ARTWORK (museum or museum's website)

Artist. (year). Title of work [description]. Museum. URL (if online)


Delacroix, E. (1826-1827). Faust attempts to seduce Marguerite [Lithograph]. The Louvre, Paris, France.

Wood, G. (1930). American gothic [Painting]. Art Institute of Chicago, Chicago, IL, United States.