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Citation Guide: How to cite PERSONAL COMMUNICATION

A guide to create citations for bibliographies and works cited in reference papers.

Personal Communication

Personal Communication includes: private letters, memos, some electronic communication (i.e. email or messages from nonarchived discussion groups), personal interviews, telephone conversations, etc.

These types of communication are not recoverable data and therefore should not be included on the Reference page. Cite personal communications in text only.


Mark Johnson says... (personal communication, April 15, 2010)

(Terry O'Kelly, personal communication, June 6, 2009)

Archived Personal Communication

If the Personal Communication has been archived, (i.e. oral histories) then include the information on the Reference page.

Interview recorded and available in an archive

Last name, First Initial. Middle Initial. of person interviewed. (Date of Interview). Interview by First initial. Middle initial. Last name [mode of medium]. Project title, Project sponsor. Location of archive, city.

Example: Milne, A. (1994, December 19). Interview by D. Alder [Tape recording]. Washington County's Oral History Program, Dixie State College. Special Collections, St. George, UT.